Improved electrical properties of AlxGa1-xN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) were achieved through increasing the Al mole fraction in the AlGaN barrier layers. An average sheet resistance of 326.6 Omega/sq and a good resistance uniformity of 98% were obtained for a 2-inch Al0.38Ga0 62N/GaN HEMT structure. The surface morphology of AlxGa1-xN/GaN HEMT structures strongly correlates with the Al content. More defects were formed with increasing Al content due to the increase of tensile strain, which limits further reduction of the sheet resistance. (c) 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co KGaA, Weinheim.