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Inflammation, immunity and potential target therapy of SARS-COV-2: A total scale analysis review

Authors
  • Smail, Shukur Wasman1, 2
  • Saeed, Muhammad3
  • Twana alkasalias,4, 5, 6
  • Khudhur, Zhikal Omar7
  • Younus, Delan Ameen5
  • Rajab, Mustafa Fahmi1
  • Abdulahad, Wayel Habib8, 9
  • Hussain, Hafiz Iftikhar10
  • Niaz, Kamal11
  • Safdar, Muhammad12
  • 1 Department of Biology, College of Science, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Iraq
  • 2 Department of Biology, College of Science, Cihan University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • 3 Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences-63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • 4 Department of Pathological Analysis, College of Science, Knowledge University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • 5 General Directorate for Scientific Research Center, Salahaddin University- Erbil, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • 6 Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 7 Department of Medical Analysis, Faculty of Science, Tishk International University - Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq
  • 8 Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9713 GZ, the Netherlands
  • 9 Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen 9713 GZ, the Netherlands
  • 10 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences-63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • 11 Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology, Faculty of Bio-Sciences, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences-63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
  • 12 Department of Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences-63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan
Type
Published Article
Journal
Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
Publication Date
Feb 25, 2021
Volume
150
Pages
112087–112087
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2021.112087
PMID: 33640537
PMCID: PMC7905385
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a complex disease that causes illness ranging from mild to severe respiratory problems. It is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) that is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus belongs to coronavirus CoV family. It has a fast-spreading potential worldwide, which leads to high mortality regardless of lows death rates. Now some vaccines or a specific drug are approved but not available for every country for disease prevention and/or treatment. Therefore, it is a high demand to identify the known drugs and test them as a possible therapeutic approach. In this critical situation, one or more of these drugs may represent the only option to treat or reduce the severity of the disease, until some specific drugs or vaccines will be developed and/or approved for everyone in this pandemic. In this updated review, the available repurpose immunotherapeutic treatment strategies are highlighted, elucidating the crosstalk between the immune system and SARS-CoV-2. Despite the reasonable data availability, the effectiveness and safety of these drugs against SARS-CoV-2 needs further studies and validations aiming for a better clinical outcome.

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