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Infection Stage-Dependent Modulation of Macrophage Activation in Trypanosoma congolense-Resistant and -Susceptible Mice

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American Society for Microbiology
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PMC
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Abstract

The contribution of cytokines and chemokines to resistance and susceptibility to African trypanosomiasis remains controversial. In the present study, the levels of type I and type II cytokines and of the MCP-1 chemokine were compared during the early and late stages of Trypanosoma congolense infection in susceptible BALB/c and resistant C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the status of macrophage activation was compared in these animals by analyzing the inducible nitric oxide synthase-arginase balance, tumor necrosis factor secretion, and expression of the FIZZ1 and YM genes. Data show that changing from a predominant type I cytokine environment in the early stage of infection to a predominant type II cytokine environment and an enhanced MCP-1 secretion in the late stage of infection correlates with resistance to T. congolense. Concomitantly, macrophage activation evolves from a classical to a predominant alternative phenotype. We further confirmed that the simultaneous occurrence of type I/type II cytokines in the early stage of infection in susceptible BALB/c mice, reflected by the presence of macrophages exhibiting a mixed classical/alternative activation phenotype, is associated with uncontrolled parasite growth and early death. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 signaling did not influence the susceptibility of BALB/c mice to T. congolense infection and interestingly were not the main trigger to alternative macrophage activation. In T. congolense-resistant C57BL/6 mice, our results corroborated the induction of FIZZ1 and YM gene expressions with the alternative pathway of macrophage activation. In susceptible BALB/c mice, however, YM but not FIZZ1 induction reflected the emergence of alternatively activated macrophages. Hence, the FIZZ1 and YM genes may be useful markers to discriminate between distinct populations of alternatively activated macrophages.

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