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Infection of Human Cells by SARS-CoV-2 and Molecular Overview of Gastrointestinal, Neurological, and Hepatic Problems in COVID-19 Patients

Authors
  • rahban;, mahdie
Publication Date
Oct 20, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/jcm10214802
OAI: oai:mdpi.com:/2077-0383/10/21/4802/
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

The gastrointestinal tract is the body’s largest interface between the host and the external environment. People infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at higher risk of microbiome alterations and severe diseases. Recent evidence has suggested that the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with gastrointestinal complicity in SARS-CoV-2 infection could be explained by the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) cell receptors. These receptors are overexpressed in the gut lining, leading to a high intestinal permeability to foreign pathogens. It is believed that SARS-CoV-2 has a lesser likelihood of causing liver infection because of the diminished expression of ACE2 in liver cells. Interestingly, an interconnection between the lungs, brain, and gastrointestinal tract during severe COVID-19 has been mentioned. We hope that this review on the molecular mechanisms related to the gastrointestinal disorders as well as neurological and hepatic manifestations experienced by COVID-19 patients will help scientists to find a convenient solution for this and other pandemic events.

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