COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the re-shaping of globalized manufacturing industry. Achieving a high level of resilience is thereby a recognized, essential ability of future manufacturing systems with the advances in smart manufacturing and Industry 4.0. In this work, a conceptual framework for resilient manufacturing strategy enabled by Industrial Internet is proposed. It is elaborated as a four-phase, closed-loop process that centered on proactive industry assessment. Key enabling technologies for the proposed framework are outlined in data acquisition and management, big data analysis, intelligent services, and others. Industrial Internet-enabled implementations in China in response to COVID-19 have then been reviewed and discussed from 3Rs’ perspective, i.e. manufacturer capacity Recovery, supply chain Resilience and emergency Response. It is suggested that an industry-specific and comprehensive selection coordinated with the guiding policy and supporting regulations should be performed at the national, at least regional level.