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Induction of max by adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonizes endothelial apoptosis.

  • Shichiri, M
  • Kato, H
  • Doi, M
  • Marumo, F
  • Hirata, Y
Published Article
Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
Publication Date
Aug 01, 1999
PMID: 10446908


Adrenomedullin is a novel vasodilatory peptide originally isolated from pheochromocytoma. Recently, we found that adrenomedullin acts as an autocrine/paracrine apoptosis survival factor for rat endothelial cells. In the present study, we show that adrenomedullin induces the expression of Max, a heterodimeric partner of c-Myc, which may contribute to its ability to rescue endothelial cells from apoptosis. Max is a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper protein that forms heterodimers with its alternative partners, Mad and Mxi-1, to behave as an antagonist for Myc-Max heterodimer through competition for common DNA targets. The expression of Max is reported to be constitutive and more stable than c-Myc, and serum induces immediate c-Myc stimulation followed by modest Max up-regulation. In quiescent rat endothelial cells, adrenomedullin stimulated the expression of Max without affecting c-Myc. Quantitation with real-time quantitative PCR detected on the ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System revealed that adrenomedullin and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), as well as serum, up-regulated Max mRNA levels and that down-regulation of Max mRNA after serum deprivation was prevented by adrenomedullin. Neither adrenomedullin nor CGRP affected c-Myc expression. Transfection of a Max-expressing plasmid into endothelial cells rescued the apoptosis induced by serum deprivation. Neutralization with anti-adrenomedullin antiserum or blockade with a CGRP receptor antagonist, CGRP(8-37), reduced Max mRNA levels in growing endothelial cells and enhanced apoptosis after serum starvation. Introduction of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against Max mRNA using transferrin receptor-operated transfer led to inhibition of both adrenomedullin-induced up-regulation of Max transcripts and its cell survival effect, whereas random, sense, or missense oligonucleotides were without effect. The negative regulation of E-box-driven transcription by adrenomedullin was demonstrated by using preproendothelin-1 promoter containing c-Myc-Max binding consensus sequence; the promoter activity of preproendothelin-1 was reduced by cotransfecting Max- and Mad-expressing plasmids as well as addition of adrenomedullin and CGRP. The present results demonstrate that adrenomedullin antagonizes serum deprivation-induced endothelial apoptosis by up-regulation of the max gene in an autocrine/ paracrine manner.


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