The carcinogenicity of sodium nitrite and methylguanidine singly and together were examined in rats. A hepatocellular carcinoma, a hemangiosarcoma and a spindle cell sarcoma were found in 3 of 15 rats fed continuously on pellet diet containing 0.16% sodium nitrite and 0.16% methylguanidine. Hemangiomas and bile duct adenomas of the liver were also found in 6 and 8, respectively, of the 15 rats in this group. Hemangiomas and bile ducts adenomas of the liver were found in 2 and 3, respectively, of the 4 rats fed on pellet diet containing 0.16% sodium nitrite. Only 1 of 5 rats fed on pellet diet containing 0.16% methylguanidine developed a hemangioma. No tumor was found in the control group. All the tumors were found in rats that survived for over 12 months. No significant changes were detected in the esophagus or stomach.