BackgroundThe positive response and the clinical usefulness of 14 serum antibodies in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) were examined in this study. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to investigate the frequency of gene expressions, mutations, and amplification of these 14 antigens and also the possible effects of antibody induction.MethodsBlood serum derived from 85 patients with ESCC was collected and analyzed for the 14 antibodies using ELISA. The prognosis between positive and negative antibodies were then compared. The antibody panel included LGALS1, HCA25a, HCC-22-5, and HSP70.ResultsPatient serum was positive for all antibodies, except VEGF, with the positive rates ranging from 1.18 to 10.59%. Positive rates for LGALS1, HCA25a, HCC-22-5, and HSP70 were > 10%. TCGA data revealed that all antigen-related genes had little or no mutation or amplification, and hence an increase in gene expression affected antibody induction. The positive results from the panel accounted for the positive rate comparable to the combination of CEA and SCC. No significant association was observed between the presence of antibodies and disease prognosis.ConclusionsThe detection rates of LGALS1, HCA25a, HCC-22-5, and HSP70 were 10% higher in patients with ESCC. Gene overexpression may be involved in such antibody production. These four antibodies were applied as a panel in comparison with conventional tumor markers. Moreover, it was confirmed that the combination of this panel and the conventional tumor markers significantly improved the positive rate.