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Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis.

Authors
  • Podsakoff, Nathan P1
  • Whiting, Steven W
  • Podsakoff, Philip M
  • Blume, Brian D
  • 1 Department of Management and Organizations, Eller College of Management, University of Arizona, USA. [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of applied psychology
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2009
Volume
94
Issue
1
Pages
122–141
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1037/a0013079
PMID: 19186900
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Although one of the main reasons for the interest in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) is the potential consequences of these behaviors, no study has been reported that summarizes the research regarding the relationships between OCBs and their outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a meta-analytic examination of the relationships between OCBs and a variety of individual- and organizational-level outcomes. Results, based on 168 independent samples (N = 51,235 individuals), indicated that OCBs are related to a number of individual-level outcomes, including managerial ratings of employee performance, reward allocation decisions, and a variety of withdrawal-related criteria (e.g., employee turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism). In addition, OCBs were found to be related (k = 38; N = 3,611 units) to a number of organizational-level outcomes (e.g., productivity, efficiency, reduced costs, customer satisfaction, and unit-level turnover). Of interest, somewhat stronger relationships were observed between OCBs and unit-level performance measures in longitudinal studies than in cross-sectional studies, providing some evidence that OCBs are causally related to these criteria. The implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

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