Neural crest cells obtained from Japanese quail and grown in vitro without other embryonic tissues differentiate into adrenergic cells. These cells show intense catecholamine-specific histochemical fluorescence, and some have long, varicose neuronal processes. Ultrastructural examination shows two populations of cells, one with small (about 90 nm) dense-core vesicles resembling principal sympathetic neurons and the other with larger (about 150 nm) dense-core granules resembling chromaffin or small intensely fluorescent cells. Neuronal cells without adrenergic characteristics are also present. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that a population of cells determined along neuronal lines exists in the neural crest prior to migration.