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Increasing Fusion Rate Between 1 and 2 Years After Instrumented Posterolateral Spinal Fusion and the Role of Bone Grafting

Authors
  • Lehr, A. Mechteld1
  • Oner, F. Cumhur1
  • Delawi, Diyar2
  • Stellato, Rebecca K.3
  • Hoebink, Eric A.4
  • Kempen, Diederik H.R.5
  • van Susante, Job L.C.6
  • Castelein, René M.1
  • Kruyt, Moyo C.1
  • 1 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Antonius Hospital, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 3 Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  • 4 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Amphia Hospital, Breda, The Netherlands
  • 5 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, OLVG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • 6 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, The Netherlands.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Spine
Publisher
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication Date
May 25, 2020
Volume
45
Issue
20
Pages
1403–1410
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000003558
PMID: 32459724
PMCID: PMC7515483
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Study Design. Two-year clinical and radiographic follow-up of a double-blind, multicenter, randomized, intra-patient controlled, non-inferiority trial comparing a bone graft substitute (AttraX® Putty) with autograft in instrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) surgery. Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare PLF rates between 1 and 2 years of follow-up and between graft types, and to explore the role of bone grafting based on the location of the PLF mass. Summary of Background Data. There are indications that bony fusion proceeds over time, but it is unknown to what extent this can be related to bone grafting. Methods. A total of 100 adult patients underwent a primary, single- or multilevel, thoracolumbar PLF. After instrumentation and preparation for grafting, the randomized allocation side of AttraX® Putty was disclosed. The contralateral posterolateral gutters were grafted with autograft. At 1-year follow-up, and in case of no fusion at 2 years, the fusion status of both sides of each segment was blindly assessed on CT scans. Intertransverse and facet fusion were scored separately. Difference in fusion rates after 1 and 2 years and between grafts were analyzed with a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) model ( P < 0.05). Results. The 2-year PLF rate (66 patients) was 70% at the AttraX® Putty and 68% at the autograft side, compared to 55% and 52% after 1 year (87 patients). GEE analysis demonstrated a significant increase for both conditions (odds ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.5–2.7, P < 0.001), but no difference between the grafts ( P = 0.595). Ongoing bone formation was only observed between the facet joints. Conclusion. This intra-patient controlled trial demonstrated a significant increase in PLF rate between 1 and 2 years after instrumented thoracolumbar fusion, but no difference between AttraX® Putty and autograft. Based on the location of the PLF mass, this increase is most likely the result of immobilization instead of grafting. Level of Evidence: 1

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