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Increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality among non-diabetic chronic kidney disease patients with hypertensive nephropathy: the Gonryo study.

  • Nakayama, Masaaki
  • Sato, Toshinobu
  • Miyazaki, Mariko
  • Matsushima, Masato
  • Sato, Hiroshi
  • Taguma, Yoshio
  • Ito, Sadayoshi
Published Article
Hypertension research : official journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2011
DOI: 10.1038/hr.2011.96
PMID: 21796127


To examine the clinical significance of hypertensive nephropathy (HN) among non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The study comprised 2692 CKD patients recruited from 11 outpatient nephrology clinics; these included 1306 patients with primary renal disease (PRD), 458 patients with HN, 283 patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and 645 patients with other nephropathies (ONs). All patients fulfilled the criteria of CKD, with a persistent low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml min(-1) per 1.73 m(2) or proteinuria as determined by a urine dipstick test. The risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure and stroke; all-cause mortality; and progression to end-stage renal failure (dialysis induction) were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model in each group. During a mean follow-up period of 22.6 months from recruitment, 100 patients were lost to follow-up and 192 patients began chronic dialysis therapy. A total of 115 CVD events occurred (stroke in 37 cases), and 44 patients died. Regarding CVD events and death, there were significant differences in the hazard ratios (HRs) for the groups of patients with different underlying renal diseases as determined by both univariate and multivariate analysis adjusted for confounding factors including estimated glomerular filtration rate: PRD, 1.0 (reference); HN, 3.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.82-6.09); DN, 5.93 (2.80-12.52); and ON, 2.22 (1.22-4.05). However, there were no differences in the hazard ratio for dialysis induction for the groups of patients with different underlying renal diseases. HN is associated with an increased risk of CVD events and death among non-diabetic CKD patients, which highlights the clinical significance of HN.

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