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Increased Osteogenic Potential of Pre-Osteoblasts on Three-Dimensional Printed Scaffolds Compared to Porous Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

Authors
  • Zamani, Yasaman1, 2
  • Amoabediny, Ghassem2, 3, 4
  • Mohammadi, Javad1
  • Zandieh-Doulabi, Behrouz5
  • Klein-Nulend, Jenneke5
  • Helder, Marco N.4
  • 1 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran;
  • 2 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Research Center for New Technologies in Life Science Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran;
  • 3 School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran;
  • 4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers-location VUmc and Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands;
  • 5 Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA)-University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Type
Published Article
Journal
Iranian Biomedical Journal
Publisher
Pasteur Institute of Iran
Publication Date
Jan 13, 2021
Volume
25
Issue
2
Pages
78–87
Identifiers
DOI: 10.29252/ibj.25.2.78
PMID: 33461289
PMCID: PMC7921523
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Full Length
License
Green

Abstract

Background: One of the main challenges with conventional scaffold fabrication methods is the inability to control scaffold architecture. Recently, scaffolds with controlled shape and architecture have been fabricated using 3D-printing. Herein, we aimed to determine whether the much tighter control of microstructure of 3DP PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds is more effective in promoting osteogenesis than porous scaffolds produced by solvent casting/porogen leaching. Methods: Physical and mechanical properties of porous and 3DP scaffolds were studied. The response of pre-osteoblasts to the scaffolds was analyzed after 14 days. Results: The 3DP scaffolds had a smoother surface (Ra: 22 ± 3 µm) relative to the highly rough surface of porous scaffolds (Ra: 110 ± 15 µm). Water contact angle was 112 ± 4° on porous and 76 ± 6° on 3DP scaffolds. Porous and 3DP scaffolds had the pore size of 408 ± 90 and 315 ± 17 µm and porosity of 85 ± 5% and 39 ± 7%, respectively. Compressive strength of 3DP scaffolds (4.0 ± 0.3 MPa) was higher than porous scaffolds (1.7 ± 0.2 MPa). Collagenous matrix deposition was similar on both scaffolds. Cells proliferated from day 1 to day 14 by fourfold in porous and by 3.8-fold in 3DP scaffolds. ALP activity was 21-fold higher in 3DP scaffolds than porous scaffolds. Conclusion: The 3DP scaffolds show enhanced mechanical properties and ALP activity compared to porous scaffolds in vitro , suggesting that 3DP PLGA/β-TCP scaffolds are possibly more favorable for bone formation.

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