Unhealthy Western-style eating patterns (WSEP) predominate, adversely affecting health. Resistance to improving dietary patterns prompts interest to incorporate a potentially health-promoting ingredient into typical WSEP foods and beverages. We assessed the effect of incorporating isocalorically matched carbohydrates versus milk protein isolate (MPI) into a WSEP on weight loss-induced changes in cardiometabolic health and body composition. In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-design study, 44 participants (age 52 ± 1 years, body mass index (BMI) 31.4 ± 0.5 kg/m2, mean ± standard error) consumed a weight maintenance WSEP (0.8 g total protein/kg/day) for 3 weeks (baseline). After, participants consumed an energy-restricted (750 kcal/day below estimated requirement) WSEP for 16 weeks, randomly assigned to contain either an additional 0.7 g carbohydrate/kg/d (CON: n = 23, 0.8 g total protein/kg/day) or 0.7 g protein/kg/d from MPI (MPI: n = 21, 1.5 g total protein/kg/day) incorporated into foods and beverages. Compared to CON, the MPI favored reductions in average 24 h and sleeping systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP), waking hours systolic BP, and fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations. Reductions in fasting plasma insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were not different between groups. Among all participants, whole body mass, lean mass, fat mass, and thigh muscle area, each decreased over time. For adults finding it difficult to deviate from a WSEP, replacing a portion of their carbohydrate with foods and beverages containing MPI may be an effective dietary strategy to reduce BP after weight loss.