In this study, the threshold fluences for disrupting the melanosomes for pigmented skin lesion treatment were determined using a 755-nm picosecond laser for clinical use. Based on the melanosome disruption thresholds, incident fluences corresponding to the target lesion depths were evaluated in silico for different laser spot sizes. Melanosome samples were isolated from porcine eyes as alternative samples for human cutaneous melanosomes. The isolated melanosomes were exposed to 755-nm picosecond laser pulses to measure the mean particle sizes by dynamic light scattering and confirm their disruption by scanning electron microscopy. The threshold fluences were statistically determined from the relationships between the irradiated fluences and the mean particle sizes. Incident fluences of picosecond laser pulses for the disruption of melanosomes located at different depths in skin tissue were calculated through a light transport simulation using the obtained thresholds. The threshold fluences of 550- and 750-picosecond laser pulses were determined to be 2.19 and 2.49 J/cm2 , respectively. The numerical simulation indicated that appropriate incident fluences of picosecond laser pulses differ depending on the depth distribution of the melanosomes in the skin tissue, and large spot sizes are desirable for disrupting the melanosomes more deeply located within the skin tissue. The threshold fluences of picosecond laser pulses for melanosome disruption were determined. The incident fluence analysis based on the thresholds for melanosome disruption provides valuable information for the selection of irradiation endpoints for picosecond laser treatment of pigmented skin lesions. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2021 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. © 2021 The Authors. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.