This study investigated the incidence and risk factors associated with chronic pain after elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia in an Asian population. A prospective cohort study was conducted among subjects who underwent elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia, with morphine patient-controlled analgesia administered for 24 hours postoperatively. Perioperative, surgical and obstetric factors were investigated prospectively. Phone surveys were conducted to identify risk factors associated with chronic pain. A total of 857 subjects completed both the perioperative study and phone survey. The incidence of wound scar pain for three months after surgery was 9.2% (79). Of the 51 subjects with persistent pain at the time of subsequent survey, 9.8% (n = 5) had constant pain, 9.8% (n = 5) had daily pain and 23.5% (n = 12) had pain intermittently, at an interval of days. The independent risk factors for development of chronic pain were higher pain scores recalled in the immediate postoperative period (odds ratio [OR, 95% confidence interval] 1.348 [1.219 to 1.490], P = 0.0001), pain present elsewhere (OR 2.471 [1.485 to 4.112], P = 0.001) and non-private insurance status (OR 1.679 [1.034 to 2.727], P = 0.036). The two most common sites of pain other than wound pain were back pain (n = 316) and migraine (n = 87).