The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a possible source of persistent or new onset pain after lumbar or lumbosacral fusion. The aim of this paper is to systematically review and analyze the available literature related to the incidence, diagnosis and management of sacroiliitis after spinal arthrodesis. The authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of all articles identified concerning sacroiliac joint pain after lumbar or lumbosacral fusion, to assess their suitability to the research focus. The average incidence of sacroiliitis after lumbar or lumbosacral arthrodesis was found to be 37 ± 28.48 (range 6-75), increasing directly to the number of fused segments involved, especially when the sacrum is included. The most accurate evaluation is the image-guided injection of anesthetic solutions in the joint. Surgery treatment may be considered when conservative therapy fails, with open surgery or with minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Although the risk of developing SIJ degeneration is unclear, the results indicate that pain and degeneration of SIJ develop more often in patients undergoing lumbosacral fusion regardless of the number of melting segments. The treatment of sacroiliitis appears to be independent of his etiology, with or without previous instrumentation on several levels.