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Incidence of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Vancomycin with Concomitant Piperacillin-Tazobactam, Cefepime, or Meropenem

Authors
  • Blevins, Adam M.
  • Lashinsky, Jennifer N.
  • McCammon, Craig
  • Kollef, Marin
  • Micek, Scott
  • Juang, Paul
Type
Published Article
Journal
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Publisher
American Society for Microbiology
Publication Date
Apr 25, 2019
Volume
63
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02658-18
PMID: 30782987
PMCID: PMC6496064
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Critically ill patients are frequently treated with empirical antibiotic therapy, including vancomycin and β-lactams. Recent evidence suggests an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients who received a combination of vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam (VPT) compared with patients who received vancomycin alone or vancomycin in combination with cefepime (VC) or meropenem (VM), but most studies were conducted predominately in the non-critically ill population. A retrospective cohort study that included 2,492 patients was conducted in the intensive care units of a large university hospital with the primary outcome being the development of any AKI. The rates of any AKI, as defined by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines, were 39.3% for VPT patients, 24.2% for VC patients, and 23.5% for VM patients ( P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). Similarly, the incidences of stage 2 and stage 3 AKI were also significantly higher for VPT patients than for the patients in the other groups. The rates of stage 2 and stage 3 AKI, respectively, were 15% and 6.6% for VPT patients, 5.8% and 1.8% for VC patients, and 6.6% and 1.3% for VM patients ( P < 0.0001 for both comparisons). In multivariate analysis, the use of vancomycin in combination with piperacillin-tazobactam was found to be an independent predictor of AKI (odds ratio [OR], 2.161; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.620 to 2.883). In conclusion, critically ill patients receiving the combination of VPT had the highest incidence of AKI compared to critically ill patients receiving either VC or VM.

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