While many employees read and respond to work-related e-mails in the evenings after work, the mechanisms through which after-hours e-mailing influences well-being remain poorly understood. In particular, there has been limited consideration of whether different characteristics of after-hours e-mails (frequency, duration, perceived tone) may trigger work-related rumination that influences employee well-being at bedtime (i.e., the end of the post-work period). To address this gap in the literature, data were collected from 59 employees during a five-day daily survey period. We expected after-hours e-mail frequency, duration, and perceived tone to indirectly relate to employee vigor and fatigue at bedtime (two common well-being criteria) via affective rumination and problem-solving pondering (two major forms of work-related rumination). Our results indicated that a more negatively perceived after-hours e-mail tone influenced both vigor and fatigue via affective rumination. Further, our findings suggested diverging implications of after-hours e-mailing frequency and duration for problem-solving pondering, with longer duration and more frequent after-hours e-mailing co-varying with higher and lower levels of this form of rumination, respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering various characteristics of after-hours e-mailing and corresponding implications of work-related rumination when studying employee well-being. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.