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Inadequacy of nutrients and contaminants found in porridge-type complementary foods in Rwanda.

Authors
  • Grosshagauer, Silke1
  • Milani, Peiman2
  • Kraemer, Klaus2
  • Mukabutera, Assumpta3
  • Burkon, Alexander4
  • Pignitter, Marc1
  • Bayer, Sebastian1
  • Somoza, Veronika1
  • 1 Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Physiological Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. , (Austria)
  • 2 Sight and Life Foundation, Basel, Switzerland. , (Switzerland)
  • 3 College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda. , (Rwanda)
  • 4 Chemisches Institut Burkon Partnerschaft, Nuremberg, Germany. , (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Maternal & child nutrition
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
Volume
16
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1111/mcn.12856
PMID: 31183951
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Child malnutrition remains persistently high in Rwanda. Complementary foods play a key role in young child nutrition. This study explores the quality and safety of complementary food products available in the Rwandan market. Ten of the most consumed porridge-type complementary food products in Rwanda have been analysed. Mean values of macronutrient and micronutrient contents were compared against three international standards and evaluated against label claims. Mean mycotoxin, microbiological, and pesticide contamination were compared with maximum tolerable limits. Mean energy density (385 kcal/100 g) and total fat content (7.9 g/100 g) were lower than all three international benchmarks. The mean fibre content of 8.5 g/100 g was above the maximum recommended amount of Codex Alimentarius and more than double the amount claimed on labels. Mean levels of vitamin A (retinyl palmitate, 0.54 mg/100 g) and vitamin E (α-tocopherol, 3.7 mg/100 g) fell significantly short of all three standards, whereas calcium and zinc requirements were only partially met. Average iron content was 12.1 mg/100 g. The analysis revealed a mean aflatoxin contamination of 61 μg/kg, and high mold and yeast infestation. Escherichia coli and pesticide residues were found, whereas no heavy metals could be quantitated. Overall, complementary food products in Rwanda show inadequate nutrient contents and high aflatoxin and microbial contamination levels. Improved regulation and monitoring of both local and imported products are needed to improve the quality and safety of complementary foods in Rwanda. © 2019 The Authors Maternal & Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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