The effects of plant inoculation with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and those resulting from the exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) or methyl jasmonte (MeJA) on total phenolic content (TPC) and monoterpenes in Mentha x piperita plants were investigated. Although the PGPR inoculation response has been studied for many plant species, the combination of PGPR and exogenous phytohormones has not been investigated in aromatic plant species. The exogenous application of SA produced an increase in TPC that, in general, was of a similar level when applied alone as when combined with PGPR. This increase in TPC was correlated with an increase in the activity of the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Also, the application of MeJA at different concentrations in combination with inoculation with PGPR produced an increase in TPC, which was more relevant at 4 mM, with a synergism effect being observed. With respect to the main monoterpene concentrations present in peppermint essential oil (EO), it was observed that SA or MeJA application produced a significant increase similar to that of the combination with rhizobacteria. However, when plants were exposed to 2 mM MeJA and inoculated, an important increase was produced in the concentration on menthol, pulegone, linalool, limonene, and menthone concentrations. Rhizobacteria inoculation, the treatment with SA and MeJA, and the combination of both were found to affect the amount of the main monoterpenes present in the EO of M. piperita . For this reason, the expressions of genes related to the biosynthesis of monoterpene were evaluated, with this expression being positively affected by MeJA application and PGPR inoculation, but was not modified by SA application. Our results demonstrate that MeJA or SA application combined with inoculation with PGPR constitutes an advantageous management practice for improving the production of secondary metabolites from M. piperita .