With ageing of the global society, the frequency of ageing-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer`s disease (AD) is on the rise worldwide. Currently, there is no cure for AD, and the four drugs approved for AD only have very small effects on AD symptoms. Consequently, there are enormous efforts worldwide to identify new targets for treatment of AD. Approaches that interfere with classical neuropathologic features of AD, such as extracellular senile plaques formed of aggregated amyloid-beta (Abeta), and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of hyperphosphorylated tau have not been successful so far. In search for a treatment approach of AD, we found that inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by a centrally acting ACE inhibitor retards symptoms of neurodegeneration, Abeta plaque formation and tau hyperphosphorylation in experimental models of AD. Our approach is currently being investigated in a clinical setting. Initial evidence with AD patients shows that a brain-penetrating ACE inhibitor counteracts the process of neurodegeneration and dementia. Moreover, centrally acting ACE inhibitors given in addition to the standard therapy, cholinesterase inhibition, can improve cognitive function of AD patients for several months. This is one of the most promising results for AD treatment since more than a decade. Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.