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Improved Ocular Tissue Models and Eye-On-A-Chip Technologies Will Facilitate Ophthalmic Drug Development.

Authors
  • Wright, Charles B1
  • Becker, Steven M1
  • Low, Lucie A2
  • Tagle, Danilo A2
  • Sieving, Paul A1
  • 1 National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
  • 2 National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of ocular pharmacology and therapeutics : the official journal of the Association for Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
Volume
36
Issue
1
Pages
25–29
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1089/jop.2018.0139
PMID: 31166829
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

In this study, we describe efforts by the National Eye Institute (NEI) and National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) to catalyze advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) ocular organoid and microphysiological systems (MPS). We reviewed the recent literature regarding ocular organoids and tissue chips. Animal models, 2-dimensional cell culture models, and postmortem human tissue samples provide the vision research community with insights critical to understanding pathophysiology and therapeutic development. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cell technologies provide researchers with enticing new approaches and tools that augment study in more traditional models to provide the scientific community with insights that have previously been impossible to obtain. Efforts by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have already accelerated the pace of scientific discovery, and recent advances in ocular organoid and MPS modeling approaches have opened new avenues of investigation. In addition to more closely recapitulating the morphologies and physiological responses of in vivo human tissue, key breakthroughs have been made in the past year to resolve long-standing scientific questions regarding tissue development, molecular signaling, and pathophysiological mechanisms that promise to provide advances critical to therapeutic development and patient care. 3-D tissue culture modeling and MPS offer platforms for future high-throughput testing of therapeutic candidates and studies of gene interactions to improve models of complex genetic diseases with no well-defined etiology, such as age-related macular degeneration and Fuchs' dystrophy.

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