Malaria case management in Africa is characterized by presumptive treatment and substantial overtreatment. We evaluated an integrated team-based training program on malaria case management. Surveillance data 120 days before and after training were compared at eight health facilities in Uganda. After training, the proportion of patients with suspected malaria referred for blood smears increased from 38.3% to 54.6% (P=0.04) in persons<5 years of age years and from 34.1% to 53.4% (P=0.02) in those>or=5 years of age. The proportion of patients with negative blood smears prescribed antimalarial drugs decreased from 47.9% to 19.6% (P<0.001) in persons<5 years of age and from 38.8% to 15.6% (P<0.001) in those>or=5 years of age. Training did not improve the proportion of patients with positive blood smears prescribed antimalarial drugs, the proportion of patients prescribed appropriate antimalarial drugs, or the diagnostic accuracy of microscopy. Integrated team-based training may improve malaria case management and reduce the number of unnecessary antimalarial treatments.