Poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) and polylactide (PLA) particles entrapping immunoreactive tetanus toxoid (TT) were prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The effect of different formulation parameters such as polymer hydrophobicity, particle size and use of additional adjuvants on the generation of immune responses in experimental animals was evaluated. Immune responses from hydrophobic polymer particles were better than those from hydrophilic polymer. Immunization with physical mixtures of different size particles resulted in further improvement in anti-TT antibody titers in Wistar rats. Physical mixture of nano and microparticles resulted in early as well as high antibody titers in experimental animals. Immunization with polymer particles encapsulating stabilized TT elicited anti-TT antibody titers, which persisted for more than 5 months and were higher than those obtained with saline TT. However, antibody responses generated by single point immunization of either particles or physical mixture of particles were lower than the conventional two doses of alum-adsorbed TT. Immunization with nanoparticles along with alum resulted in very high and early immune response: high anti-TT antibody titers were detected as early as 15 days post-immunization. Use of a squalene emulsion along with the particles during immunization enhanced the level of anti-TT antibody titers considerably. Single point immunization with admixtures of PLA microparticles and alum resulted in antibody response very close to that achieved by two injections of alum-adsorbed TT; the antibody titers were more than 50 microg/ml over a period of 6 months. These results indicated that the judicious choice of polymer and particles size, protecting the immunoreactivity of the entrapped antigen and the appropriate design of immunization protocol along with suitable adjuvant can lead to the generation of long lasting immune response from single dose vaccine formulation using polymer particles.