Swimming performance (aerobic and anaerobic) is often used to predict the ability of fish to adapt and survive. Fish raised in captivity are typically poor swimmers and have lower survival rates than wild conspecifics when released into the natural environment. We investigated the potential for exercise training to enhance the swimming performance of Schizothorax wangchiachii held in captivity. Juvenile fish (mean body mass 1.40 ± 0.13 g, mean body length 4.36 ± 0.24 cm) were trained under five different regimes [3 cm·s-1 control group (C), 10 cm·s-1 for 6 (L6) and 12 h (L12) per day and 20 cm·s-1 for 6 (H6) and 12 h (H12) per day] for 30 days and then detrained for 20 days (i.e. no training). Aerobic (i.e. critical swimming speed, Ucrit), anaerobic swimming performance (i.e. endurance time at 1.2 or 1.5 Ucrit), and morphological parameters were measured at the beginning (T0), after 30 days of exercise training (T30) and after 20 days of detraining (DT20). Aerobic exercise training significantly improved the Ucrit, endurance time at 1.2 and 1.5 Ucrit of juvenile S. wangchiachii (P < .05). After 20 days of detraining, both the aerobic and anaerobic swimming performance of the H6 and H12 groups declined and no longer differed from the control group indicating a failure to maintain improved swimming performance, whereas improved swimming performance was maintained in L6 and L12 groups. No significant difference in swimming performance was found between 6 and 12 hours training at 10 cm·s-1. Thus, exercise at close to 10 cm·s-1 for 6 h per day for 30 days or a longer time periods prior to release appears to be a suitable regime for swimming performance enhancement, potentially increasing survivability of released S. wangchiachii in wild. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.