Traditional therapeutic methods in psychiatry, such as psychopharmacology and psychotherapy help many people suffering from mental disorders, but in the long-term prove to be effective in a relatively small proportion of those affected. Therapeutically, resistant forms of mental disorders such as schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and bipolar disorder lead to persistent distress and dysfunction in personal, social, and professional aspects. In an effort to address these problems, the translational approach in neuroscience has initiated the inclusion of novel or modified unconventional diagnostic and therapeutic techniques with promising results. For instance, neuroimaging data sets from multiple modalities provide insight into the nature of pathophysiological mechanisms such as disruptions of connectivity, integration, and segregation of neural networks, focusing on the treatment of mental disorders through instrumental biomedical methods such as electro-convulsive therapy (ECT), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS). These methodologies have yielded promising results that have yet to be understood and improved to enhance the prognosis of the severe and persistent psychotic and affective disorders. The current review is focused on the translational approach in the management of schizophrenia and mood disorders, as well as the adaptation of new transdisciplinary diagnostic tools such as neuroimaging with concurrently administered psychopathological questionnaires and integration of the results into the therapeutic framework using various advanced instrumental biomedical tools such as ECT, TMS, tDCS and DBS. ©The Author(s) 2021. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.