serum lipids were significantly higher in obese and T2DM. Insulin sensitivity was significantly reduced in T2DM and obese vs controls; T2DM showed a more pronounced oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS) reduction vs obese. Both obese and T2DM presented an higher IR. T2DM showed an impaired β-cell function, with insulin areas under the curve and disposition index significantly reduced in comparison to controls and obese who showed similar values. A progressive reduction of vagal indexes and an increase of sympathetic indexes were found in obese adolescents and were more pronounced in T2DM. These parameters were correlated with OGIS and β-cell function parameters in both obese and T2DM adolescents. T2DM showed a significant relative wall thickness increase suggesting a trend toward concentric remodeling. In conclusion, T2DM adolescents are characterized by a more marked IR reduced β-cell function in comparison to non-diabetic obese. These modifications may lead to an early impairment of the autonomic pattern.