Overweight and obesity are worldwide health concerns leading to many physiological disorders. Recent data highlighted their deleterious effects on brain homeostasis and plasticity, but the mechanisms underlying such disruptions are still not well understood. In this study, we developed and characterized a fast and reliable diet-induced overweight (DIO) model in zebrafish, for (1) studying the effects of overfeeding on brain homeostasis and for (2) testing different preventive and/or therapeutic strategies. By overfeeding zebrafish for 4 weeks, we report the disruption of many metabolic parameters reproducing human overweight features including increased body weight, body mass index, fasting blood glucose levels and liver steatosis. Furthermore, DIO fish displayed blood–brain barrier leakage, cerebral oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and decreased neurogenesis. Finally, we investigated the preventive beneficial effects of A. borbonica, an endogenous plant from Reunion Island. Overnight treatment with A. borbonica aqueous extract during the 4 weeks of overfeeding limited some detrimental central effects of DIO. In conclusion, we established a relevant DIO model in zebrafish demonstrating that overfeeding impairs peripheral and central homeostasis. This work also highlights the preventive protective effects of A. borbonica aqueous extracts in DIO, and opens a way to easily screen drugs aiming at limiting overweight and associated neurological disorders.