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The Impact of Trace Minerals on Bone Metabolism

Authors
  • Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin1
  • 1 Military Performance Division of the US Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA, 01760, USA , Natick (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biological Trace Element Research
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Nov 23, 2018
Volume
188
Issue
1
Pages
26–34
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s12011-018-1583-8
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Bone is a metabolically active tissue that responds to alterations in dietary intake and nutritional status. It is ~ 35% protein, mostly collagen which provides an organic scaffolding for bone mineral. The mineral is the remaining ~ 65% of bone tissue and composed mostly of calcium and phosphate in a form that is structurally similar to mineral within the apatite group. The skeletal tissue is constantly undergoing turnover through resorption by osteoclasts coupled with formation by osteoblasts. In this regard, the overall bone balance is determined by the relative contribution of each of these processes. In addition to macro minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium which have well-known roles in bone health, trace elements such as boron, iron, zinc, copper, and selenium also impact bone metabolism. Effects of trace elements on skeletal metabolism and tissue properties may be indirect through regulation of macro mineral metabolism, or direct by affecting osteoblast or osteoclast proliferation or activity, or finally through incorporation into the bone mineral matrix. This review focuses on the skeletal impact of the following trace elements: boron, iron, zinc, copper, and selenium, and overviews the state of the evidence for each of these minerals.

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