Background: Therapeutic bronchoscopy (TB) is an accepted strategy for the symptomatic management of central airway malignant obstruction. Stent insertion is recommended in case of extrinsic compression, but its value in preventing airway re-obstruction after endobronchial treatment without extrinsic compression is unknown. Objective: Silicone stent Placement in symptomatic airway Obstruction due to non-small cell lung Cancer (SPOC) is the first randomized controlled trial investigating the potential benefit of silicone stent insertion after successful TB in symptomatic malignant airway obstruction without extrinsic compression. Method: We planned an inclusion of 170 patients in each group (stent or no stent) over a period of 3 years with 1-year follow-up. The 1-year survival rate without symptomatic local recurrence was the main endpoint. Recurrence rate, survival, quality of life, and stent tolerance were secondary endpoints. During 1-year follow-up, clinical events were monitored by flexible bronchoscopies and were evaluated by an independent expert committee. Results: Seventy-eight patients (mean age 65 years) were randomized into 2 arms: stents (n = 40) or no stents (n = 38) after IB. Consequently, our main endpoint could not be statistically answered. Improvement of dyspnea symptoms is noticeable in each group but lasts longer in the stent group. Stents do not change the survival curve but reduce unattended bronchoscopies. In the no stent group, 19 new TB were performed with 16 stents inserted contrasting with 10 rigid bronchoscopies and 3 stents placed in the stent group. In a subgroup analysis according to the oncologic management protocol following TB (first-line treatment and other lines or palliation), the beneficial effect of stenting on obstruction recurrence was highly significant (p < 0.002), but was not observed in the naïve group, free from first-line chemotherapy. Conclusion: Silicone stent placement maintains the benefit of TB after 1 year on dyspnea score, obstruction’s recurrence, and the need for new TB. Stenting does not affect the quality of life and is suggested for patients after failure of first-line chemotherapy. It is not suggested in patients without previous oncologic treatment.