Sex differences are well-recognized in ischemic stroke, a disease mainly affecting the elderly. Stroke results in robust activation of central and peripheral immune responses which contributes to functional outcome. Aging is associated with increased low-grade chronic inflammation known as "inflammaging" that renders aged males and females more susceptible to poor outcomes after ischemic stroke. Despite the fact that sex differences are well-documented in immunity and inflammation, few studies have focused on sex differences in inflammatory responses after ischemic stroke and even fewer have been performed in the context of aging. The role of T cell responses in ischemic stroke have gained increasing attention over the past decade as data suggest a major role in the pathophysiology/recovery after ischemic injury. T cells offer an attractive therapeutic target due to their relatively delayed infiltration into the ischemic brain. This review will focus on T cell immune responses in ischemic stroke, highlighting studies examining the effects of aging and biological sex. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.