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The impact of seven major noncommunicable diseases on direct medical costs, absenteeism, and presenteeism in Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

Authors
  • Finkelstein, Eric Andrew1
  • Malkin, Jesse D2
  • Baid, Drishti1
  • Alqunaibet, Ada3
  • Mahdi, Khaled4
  • Al-Thani, Mohammed Bin Hamad5
  • Abdulla Bin Belaila, Buthaina6
  • Al Nawakhtha, Ebrahim7
  • Alqahtani, Saleh8
  • El-Saharty, Sameh9
  • Herbst, Christopher H10
  • 1 Health Services and System Research Program, Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore. , (Singapore)
  • 2 World Bank Group consultant, Colorado Springs, Colorado, United States. , (United States)
  • 3 Saudi Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
  • 4 Supreme Council for Planning and Development, Kuwait City, Kuwait. , (Kuwait)
  • 5 Ministry of Public Health, Doha, Qatar. , (Qatar)
  • 6 Ministry of Health and Prevention, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. , (United Arab Emirates)
  • 7 Bahrain Supreme Council of Heath, Manama, Bahrain. , (Bahrain)
  • 8 Johns Hopkins University, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Baltimore, Maryland, United States. , (United States)
  • 9 Health, Nutrition and Population Global Practice, World Bank, Kuwait City, Kuwait. , (Kuwait)
  • 10 Health, Nutrition and Population Global Practice, World Bank, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. , (Saudi Arabia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of medical economics
Publication Date
Jun 17, 2021
Pages
1–1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1080/13696998.2021.1945242
PMID: 34138664
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To estimate the current burden of seven major noncommunicable diseases on direct medical costs, absenteeism, and presenteeism in the six countries in the Gulf Cooperation Council: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. We used data from pre-existing datasets and the literature. We identified seven major noncommunicable diseases for which data were available: coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus, breast cancer, colon cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. We estimated the per unit cost (the annual cost of treating each illness for one person) of each disease, multiplied per unit cost by disease prevalence counts to generate disease-specific costs, and then summed across diseases. We calculated the cost of absenteeism and presenteeism by multiplying the gross domestic product per person in the labor force by the loss in productivity from each disease due to absenteeism and presenteeism, respectively, and the prevalence in the labor force of each disease. We estimate that the direct medical costs of seven major noncommunicable diseases in Gulf Cooperation Council countries are $16.7 billion (2019 International $), equal to 0.6 percent of gross domestic product. We estimate that absenteeism and presenteeism due to these seven noncommunicable diseases cost 0.5 percent and 2.2 percent of gross domestic product, respectively. Our study does not capture all noncommunicable diseases and does not capture all types of indirect costs. Our cost estimates are particularly sensitive to our assumptions regarding type 2 diabetes mellitus. The economic burden of noncommunicable diseases in Gulf Cooperation Council countries is substantial, suggesting that successful preventive interventions have the potential to improve both population health and reduce costs. Further research is needed to capture a broader array of noncommunicable diseases and to develop more precise estimates.

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