Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the most common type of breast cancer, is associated with poor patient prognosis. Platinum-containing chemotherapies are commonly used in the treatment and prevention of advanced TNBC. Objectives and Methods: To systematically evaluate the effectiveness and safety of platinum-containing chemotherapies in patients with advanced TNBC, we searched several databases, including PubMed, Medline, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Cochrane Library, CNKI, CBM, and the Chinese Cochrane Center, to collect published randomized controlled clinical studies of platinum-containing chemotherapies for advanced TNBC before November 2020. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager version 5.3. To assess effectiveness and safety, dichotomous and continuous variables were assessed using odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD), respectively, with 95% CI. Results: A total of 1,222 patients with advanced TNBC were enrolled in 11 eligible trials, including 489 patients in the treatment group (platinum-containing) and 447 patients in the control group (non-platinum-containing). We also retrieved information whether a PARP inhibitor was combined with platinum-containing chemotherapy for patients with metastatic TNBC and identified 224 patients who received a PARP inhibitor combined with platinum-containing chemotherapy and 62 patients in the platinum-containing group who did not. The platinum-containing chemotherapy group had a significantly better objective response rate (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.20–1.71, p < 0.001) and longer progression-free survival (PFS; MD 1.15, 95% CI 0.03–2.28, p < 0.05) than the non-platinum-containing chemotherapy group. However, there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced TNBC between the two groups (MD 2.04, 95% CI –0.83 to 4.91, p > 0.05). Related adverse effects of platinum-containing chemotherapies involved gastrointestinal reaction, myelosuppression and liver function damage. Platinum-containing chemotherapies were not associated with an increased incidence of adverse side effects compared with non-platinum-containing chemotherapies, with the exception of nausea and vomiting (OR 2.22, 95% CI 1.10–4.46, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the addition of the PARP inhibitor iniparib to gemcitabine and carboplatin treatment improved the rate of clinical benefit, OS and PFS. Conclusions: Platinum-containing chemotherapy remains a highly recommended therapeutic regimen due to greater effectiveness and tolerance for patients with advanced TNBC.