Propolis is a bee product with known medical properties, including antioxidant activity. The scope of the study is profiling 19 different Eurasian propolis samples (mostly from Russia and Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Poland, Ukraine, and Slovakia). Profiles of propolises were investigated by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detector–mass spectrometry (UPLC-DAD-MS). Classical antioxidant properties, which are based on electron donation mechanism, were assessed by DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were also evaluated by colorimetric tests. Most of the samples exhibited significant content of polyphenols (from 30.28 to 145.24 mg GAE/g of propolis) and flavonoids (from 10.45 to 82.71 mg GAE/g of propolis). Most of the propolis samples exhibited potent antiradical (DPPH test—from 8.83 to 64.47 mg GAE/g of propolis) and reducing activity (FRAP test—from 0.08 to 1.17 mmol Fe2+/g of propolis). Based on the occurrence of marker compounds, propolis samples were classified as poplar, aspen–birch, aspen–poplar, and aspen–birch–poplar type. Main markers present in propolis of poplar (e.g., chrysin, pinocembrin, galangin, and 3- O -acetyl-pinobanksin), birch (ermanin and acacetin) and aspen (2-acetyl-1,3-di- p -coumaroylglycerol) origin were used. DPPH, FRAP, and ORAC tests results were correlated with flavonoids, total polyphenols, or the polyphenols other than flavonoids content. In term of activity, poplar propolis type was variable, while aspen–birch–poplar type usually exhibited high DPPH and FRAP activity.