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Impact of metabolic and cardiovascular disease on COVID-19 mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors
  • Sahni, Shubham1
  • Gupta, Gaurav1
  • Sarda, Radhika1
  • Pandey, Shivam2
  • Pandey, R.M.2
  • Sinha, Sanjeev1
  • 1 Department of Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, Delhi- 110029, India
  • 2 Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi, Delhi- 110029, India
Type
Published Article
Journal
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Publisher
Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Publication Date
Oct 06, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.dsx.2021.102308
PMCID: PMC8492383
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review Article
License
Unknown

Abstract

Background and aims This meta-analysis aims to highlight the impact of cardio-metabolic comorbidities on COVID-19 severity and mortality. Methods A thorough search on major online databases was done for studies describing the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients. We used random-effects model to compute pooled estimates for critical or fatal disease. Results A total of 20,475 patients from 33 eligible studies were included. Maximum risk of development of critical or fatal COVID-19 disease was seen in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease [OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 2.65–4.48] followed by chronic lung disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Of the total cases, 64% had one of the four comorbidities with the most prevalent being hypertension with a pooled prevalence of 27%. Conclusions Presence of comorbidities like cardiovascular disease, chronic lung disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus led to a higher risk of development of critical or fatal COVID-19 disease, with maximum risk seen with underlying cardiovascular disease.

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