There is now substantial evidence that the cytokine interleukin-17 orchestrates the accumulation of neutrophils in mammals and thereby contributes to host defense. However, the role of IL-17 in controlling neutrophil turnover is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that IL-17 stimulates the apoptosis of mouse neutrophils and, simultaneously, the release of the microbicidal compound, myeloperoxidase. IL-17 also stimulates mouse macrophages to phagocytose aged neutrophils and latex beads, and it induces an increase in a soluble form of the phagocytic receptor, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 as well. In contrast, IL-17 does not markedly increase the release of the archetype neutrophil-recruiting cytokine, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 in mouse macrophages. Importantly, IL-17 also stimulates the phagocytosis of latex beads in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Thus, IL-17 bears the potential to control both phagocytosis and neutrophil turnover during activation of host defense.