Exercise is known to prevent and treat metabolic diseases such as diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and there is currently much focus on detailing such pathways. Traditionally, much emphasis has been placed on skeletal muscle; however, recently, nonmuscle organs such as adipose tissue have been highlighted in mediating protective actions after training. Moreover, novel paracrine- and endocrine-signaling molecules have been shown to trigger important responses in nonmuscle organs after exercise. This is exciting because, when administered exogenously, such signals have obvious therapeutic potential. In this review, the authors have described some general and historical aspects of training and disease protection. The authors have also highlighted some of the current knowledge on how exercise impacts nonmuscle organs.