Background: Obesity is considered a risk factor for postoperative complications as it can limit exposure to the operation field, thereby significantly prolonging surgery time. Obesity-associated comorbidities, such as low-grade systemic inflammation, impaired functional status, and type 2 diabetes, are independent risk factors for impaired anastomotic wound healing and nonsurgical site infections. If obesity itself is an independent risk factor for surgical complications remains controversial, but the reason for this is largely unexplored. Summary: A MEDLINE literature search was performed using the terms: “obesity,” “excess body weight,” and “surgical complications.” Out of 65,493 articles 432 meta-analyses were screened, of which 25 meta-analyses were on the subject. The vast majority of complex oncologic procedures in the field of visceral surgery have shown higher complication rates in obese patients. Meta-analyses from the last 10 to 15 years with high numbers of patients enrolled consistently have shown longer operation times, higher blood loss, longer hospital stay for colorectal procedures, oncologic upper gastrointestinal (GI) procedures, and pancreatic surgery. Interestingly, these negative effects seem not to affect the overall survival in oncologic patients, especially in esophageal resections. A selection bias in oncologic upper GI patients may have influenced the results with higher BMI in upper GI cancer to be a predictor for better nutritional and performance status. Key Messages: Contrary to bariatric surgery, only limited evidence indicated that site and type of surgery, the approach to the abdominal cavity (laparoscopic vs. open), institutional factors, and the type of perioperative care such as ERAS protocols may play a role in determining postsurgical complications in obese patients. The initial question remains therefore partially unanswered. Large nationwide register-based studies are necessary to better understand which aspects of obesity and its related comorbidities define it as a risk factor for surgical complications.