Diabetes mellitus is one of the most concerning non-communicable diseases worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes increased rapidly by the influence of socioeconomic interactions. The thrifty hypothesis postulates that certain genes that are involved in positive selection promote efficient fat deposition and storage. This is beneficial for the survival of mankind in adverse conditions. However, in this modern society, these genes have become disadvantageous as people are significantly less likely to experience famines and nutrition shortages. The socioeconomic development that has occurred during the 20th century induced abundance of food supplies in almost all regions of the world. This has led to a rapid rise in the prevalence of obesity, and type 2 diabetes as a consequence. Boom of diabetic pandemic in newly developed countries compare with others those who developed gradually can be explain by thrifty hypothesis, as a result of the difference in the exposure to environmental factors and famine by the ancestors leads. The globalization, urbanization, lack of physical activity, intake of high calorie food and migration is major cause of pandemic emergence of diabetes in high as well as middle and low-income countries.