Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate work-family conflict (WFC) and work-family facilitation (WFF) of working mothers of children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared with those of working mothers of children under follow-up not requiring treatment and of healthy children, and to explore the impact of organizational resources and the characteristics of the child and his disease on this interface. Methods: The study included 157 working mothers: 50 mothers of children with T1D, 50 mothers of children on medical follow-up without chronic illness and 57 mothers of healthy children. The participants completed validated questionnaires including the WFC scale, WFF scale, organizational resources support scale, life and work satisfaction questionnaire, a background demographic questionnaire and a child health questionnaire. Mothers of children with T1D also completed a questionnaire relating to diabetes management. Results: Almost half of the mothers of children with T1D found it necessary to reduce their working hours or to change their workplace. This group also reported a significantly higher level of colleague support. There were no significant differences in WFC and WFF between mothers of children with T1D and controls. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the effect of raising a T1D child on the mother’s vocational behavior. Despite the additional burden, work is a source of enrichment for these mothers.