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Impact of Cardio-Renal-Metabolic Comorbidities on Cardiovascular Outcomes and Mortality in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors
  • Cherney, David Z.I.
  • Repetto, Enrico
  • Wheeler, David C.
  • Arnold, Suzanne V.
  • MacLachlan, Sharon
  • Hunt, Philip R.
  • Chen, Hungta
  • Vora, Jiten
  • Kosiborod, Mikhail
Type
Published Article
Journal
American Journal of Nephrology
Publisher
S. Karger AG
Publication Date
Dec 06, 2019
Volume
51
Issue
1
Pages
74–82
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1159/000504558
PMID: 31812955
Source
Karger
Keywords
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Background: We evaluated the incremental contribution of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to the risk of major adverse cardiovascular (CV) events (MACE), heart failure (HF), and all-cause mortality (ACM) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and its importance relative to the presence of other cardio-renal-metabolic (CaReMe) comorbidities. Methods: Patients (≥40 years) were identified at the time of T2DM diagnosis from US (Humedica/Optum) and UK (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) databases. Patients were monitored post-diagnosis for modified MACE (myocardial infarction, stroke, ACM), HF, and ACM. Adjusted hazard ratios were obtained using Cox proportional-hazards regression to evaluate the relative risk of modified MACE, HF, and ACM due to CKD. Patients were stratified by the presence or absence of atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) and age. Results: Between 2011 and 2015, of 227,224 patients identified with incident T2DM, 40,063 (17.64%) had CKD. Regardless of prior ASCVD, CKD was associated with higher risk of modified MACE, HF, and ACM; this excess hazard was more pronounced in older patients with prior ASCVD. In time-to-event analyses in the overall cohort, patients with T2DM + CKD or T2DM + CKD + hypertension + hyperlipidemia had increased risks for modified MACE, HF, and ACM versus patients with T2DM and no CaReMe comorbidities. Patients with CKD had higher risks for and shorter times to modified MACE, HF, and ACM than those without CKD. Conclusion: In T2DM patients, CKD presence was associated with higher risk of modified MACE, HF, and ACM. This may have risk-stratification implications for T2DM patients based on background CKD and highlights the potential importance of novel renoprotective strategies.

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