The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the treatment strategy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevalence of RA-related surgeries after approval of biologics in Japan and to analyze the impact of biologics on the incidence of orthopedic surgeries using a nationwide observational cohort database of rheumatic diseases [National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan (NinJa)]. The proportion of patients using biologics linearly increased from 2004 (1.8%) to 2007 (10.0%), but neither the number nor type of RA-related surgery significantly changed during this period. Patients treated with biologics exhibited relatively more severe disease activity and lower physical function. Among patients using biologics, those who underwent RA-related surgeries exhibited background characteristics of longer disease duration and worse physical function, while disease activity was not different from patients without surgery. These results suggest that the potential value of biologics in avoiding surgical procedure is limited in patients with severe functional disorders caused by long disease duration. Further investigation with a longer observation period is required to obtain more definite conclusions as to the impact of biologics usage on orthopedic surgeries.