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The impact of age and receipt antihypertensives to systolic blood pressure and shock index at injury scene and in the emergency department to predict massive transfusion in trauma patients

Authors
  • Park, Se Jin1
  • Lee, Mi Jin1
  • Kim, Changho1
  • Jung, Haewon1
  • Kim, Seong Hun2
  • Nho, Wooyoung2
  • Seo, Kang Suk1
  • Park, Jungbae1
  • Ryoo, Hyun Wook1
  • Ahn, Jae Yun1
  • Moon, Sungbae1
  • Cho, Jae Wan1
  • Son, Shin-ah1
  • 1 School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea , Daegu (South Korea)
  • 2 Gumi CHA Medical Center, CHA University, Gumi, Republic of Korea , Gumi (South Korea)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Scandinavian Journal of Trauma Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Jan 30, 2021
Volume
29
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s13049-021-00840-2
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundSystolic blood pressure (SBP) and shock index (SI) are accurate indicators of hemodynamic instability and the need for transfusion in trauma patients. We aimed to determine whether the utility and cutoff point for SBP and SI are affected by age and antihypertensives.MethodsThis was a retrospective observational study of a level 1 trauma center between January 2017 and December 2018. We analyzed the utility and cutoff points of SBP and SI for predicting massive transfusion (MT) and 30-day mortality according to patients’ age and whether they were taking antihypertensives. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the association of age and antihypertensives on primary and secondary outcomes.ResultsWe analyzed 4681 trauma cases. There were 1949 patients aged 65 years or older (41.6%), and 1375 hypertensive patients (29.4%). MT was given to 137 patients (2.9%). The 30-day mortality rate was 6.3% (n = 294). In geriatric trauma patients taking antihypertensives, a prehospital SBP less than 110 mmHg was the cutoff value for predicting MT in multivariate logistic regression analyses; packed red blood cell transfusion volume decreased abruptly based on prehospital SBP of 110 mmHg. Emergency Department SI greater than 1.0 was the cutoff value for predicting MT in patients who were older than 65 years and were not taking antihypertensives.ConclusionsThe triage of trauma patients is based on the identification of clinical features readily identifiable by first responders. However, age and medications may also affect the accurate evaluation. In initial trauma management, we must apply SBP and SI differently depending on age, whether a patient is taking antihypertensives, and the time at which the indicators are measured.

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