We have studied, as part of a group of international multicenter phase II clinical trials, the toxicity and effectiveness of CAMPATH1H administered intravenously three times a week in an outpatient setting to patients with recurrent or progressive low grade lymphoma. We report here on the toxicity and therapeutic results of the first seven patients treated before the study was closed prematurely because of unacceptable toxicity. Classical complete or partial responses of treatment were seen in three of seven patients. One complete response lasted 8.5 months and the other complete response is ongoing at 1 year. Responses occurred in nodal sites as well as in skin and peripheral blood. The first three or four antibody infusions in each patient was associated with grade 1 or 2 side-effects including rigor, fever, facial flushing, nausea, vomiting, hives, wheezes, hypotension, and/or diarrhea but these subsequently decreased or disappeared. The most significant toxicity was profound lymphopenia and associated infection, usually viral. Six of seven patients had culture or serologically documented infections and four patients had two or more such episodes. All infections responded to temporary discontinuation of antibody therapy and appropriate antiviral or antibiotic agents. We conclude that CAMPATH1H monoclonal antibody has therapeutic activity against low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma but that this activity is limited by marked lymphopenia and an unacceptably high frequency of serious infection at the dose and schedule used in this trial.