The antibody response to louping-ill virus vaccine was examined in mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei and T congolense, and in Ethiopian cattle experimentally infected with T brucei, T congolense and T vivax. In mice the antibody response was completely suppressed, while in cattle infected with T congolense and T vivax the antibody response to the vaccine was only 10 per cent that of uninfected animals. In contrast, the response of cattle infected with T brucei was not significantly reduced, and this was attributed to their relatively light and transient parasitaemias. Trypanocidal chemotherapy (diminazine aceturate) administered on the same day as vaccination largely restored the competence of the immune response of both mice and cattle infected with T congolense. The use of such drugs should be considered when cattle are vaccinated in trypanosome endemic areas.