The possible differences in the immunostimulant effects between whole wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a mutant strain (fks-1) administered in the diet to gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) were studied. Fish were fed diets containing 0 (control) or 10 g whole wild yeast or fks-1 strain per kilogram feed for 2, 4 or 6 weeks. After each sampling, the innate humoral (complement, lysozyme and peroxidases) and cellular (intracellular peroxidases, phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity and cytotoxicity) responses were determined. Among the humoral responses, serum peroxidases and complement activity were significantly decreased after 6 weeks of feeding with the fks-1 strain-supplemented diet, while lysozyme activity increased after 2 and 4 weeks of feeding the fks-1 strain. Of the cellular responses studied, phagocytosis was increased to a significant degree at all the assayed times but only by the fks-1 strain-supplemented diet, while respiratory burst activity (after 4 weeks) and natural cytotoxicity (after 4 and 6 weeks) increased with either yeast strain. The intracellular peroxidase content was not affected by the dietary supplementation of either yeast strain. These results are discussed with a view to assessing the possible use of wild and/or mutant yeast strains for immunostimulant purposes in aquaculture.