Immunotherapy applied to patients with established tumors rarely leads to an objective response, whereas patients apparently free from disease after conventional treatment and at risk of recurrence are beginning to receive vaccination. New classes of patients or not-yet patients are those with a high genetic or environmental risk of developing cancer. They may draw benefit from a "soft" treatment such as vaccination. This overview discusses the prospects of immune stimulation as a means of cancer prevention by inducing various forms of nonspecific or even specific immunity. Attainment of this goal provides the rationale and motivation for embarking on such a new and potentially rewarding enterprise.