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Immunophenotypic Analysis of Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia: A EuroFlow Study

  • brouwer;, on of on of nienke
Publication Date
Mar 21, 2022
DOI: 10.3390/cancers14061583
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Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a rare and heterogeneous subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We evaluated the immunophenotypic profile of 72 AMKL and 114 non-AMKL AML patients using the EuroFlow AML panel. Univariate and multivariate/multidimensional analyses were performed to identify most relevant markers contributing to the diagnosis of AMKL. AMKL patients were subdivided into transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM), myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome (ML-DS), AML—not otherwise specified with megakaryocytic differentiation (NOS-AMKL), and AMKL—other patients (AML patients with other WHO classification but with flowcytometric features of megakaryocytic differentiation). Flowcytometric analysis showed good discrimination between AMKL and non-AMKL patients based on differential expression of, in particular, CD42a.CD61, CD41, CD42b, HLADR, CD15 and CD13. Combining CD42a.CD61 (positive) and CD13 (negative) resulted in a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 99%. Within AMKL patients, TAM and ML-DS patients showed higher frequencies of immature CD34+/CD117+ leukemic cells as compared to NOS-AMKL and AMKL-Other patients. In addition, ML-DS patients showed a significantly higher expression of CD33, CD11b, CD38 and CD7 as compared to the other three subgroups, allowing for good distinction of these patients. Overall, our data show that the EuroFlow AML panel allows for straightforward diagnosis of AMKL and that ML-DS is associated with a unique immunophenotypic profile.

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