Posterior scleritis can present with a variety of symptoms, and its clinical diagnosis is therefore difficult. Little is known about the pathogenesis and the cellular effector mechanisms. This case report presents the immunopathological findings of posterior scleritis in the enucleated eye of a 28-year-old female with no known underlying disease. The cells infiltrating the scleral fibers consisted predominantly of T cells. Many of them were CD4 cells. Clusters of T and B cells were found in perivascular areas. No signs of primary vasculitis were seen. The cellular infiltrate in posterior scleritis shows features compatible with a T-cell-mediated (autoimmune) disorder.